Saturn (土星; Star of Earth) is the sixth planet from the Sun in this Solar System, and is best known for its collection of rings. The number of moons it has is uncertain (due to the large collection of matter in the rings), but its most famous moon is Titan, and the other moons are accordingly named after mythological Titans. It is grouped with Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune as a planet of the outer Solar System.
In the Sailor Moon series, Saturn was protected by Sailor Saturn, even though in the present she resided on Earth with the other Sailor Senshi of the system. During the time of the Silver Millennium, she was sealed on Saturn to prevent her awakening.
Saturn was the god of agriculture and harvest, and his symbol was the sickle. He was the son of the sky god Caelus, also known as Uranus, and the earth goddess Terra, and led a rebellion against his father with his mother's aid, making himself the king of the gods. Saturn was the father of some of the main gods of the Roman pantheon, such as Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, Juno, Ceres, and Vesta.
He was identified with the Greek deity Cronus (Κρόνος), and often confused with Chronos (Χρόνος), the personification of time. The Greeks of the classical era read "Κρόνος" as "Chronos," thus the mythologies of the three gods were commonly mixed.
Saturn is associated with limitations of the sort that bring order and structure to the world, or a need to fulfill obligations. It can also symbolize ambition, fear, self-discipline, loneliness, and harsh trials that lead to personal growth. Saturn is associated with Saturday. Dante Alighieri associated Saturn with the art of astronomia.
In Chinese astrology, Saturn is ruled by the element earth. In Indian astrology, Saturn represents the servant, meaning hard work.
- In the Japanese calendar, Saturday is called "doyoubi" (土曜日), meaning "the day of earth."
- The day Saturday is named after Saturn, making it the only day of the week named after a Roman god.
- Robert Graves, The Greek Myths